Thursday, September 3, 2020

Identification Of Poisonous And Non Poisonous Snake

Recognizable proof Of Poisonous And Non Poisonous Snake Presentation Snakes are one of the most fascinating reptilian animals of earth. They are intriguing with respect to the reason for concentrate just as examination and that is so a result of the one character they have in them and that is there Poison which is called by the name of Venom. Not at all like all reptile snakes are harmful however not every one of them. A couple of animal categories among them neglected to get that character. This venom go about as both valuable weapon just as guard shield against its implore and adversary. The snake venom is an unsafe protein and portrayed by complex sytheses. It is vile egg-like gooey fluid having marginally fishy smell. It is the mind boggling set of hurtful toxicants just as proteins. Other than toxicants and proteins the snake venom contains a few peptides, amino acids, starches, lipids, nucleosides, natural amines and metal particles, which make it considerably more intricate than other ordinary proteins. Venom contains in excess of 20 sorts of compounds and poisons, yet the fundamental elements of the venom are harmful proteins. The harmful part present in snake venom changes as indicated by the snake species or even the venom emitted by a similar snake in various season may likewise differ. This progressions the quality of various snake venom and chooses its job in pharmacological, toxicological and clinical field. Snake venom essentially comprises of neurotoxins, cardiotoxins, poisons that cause blood coagulating, draining poisons (that stops the blood thickening and blood stays to stream consistently considerably after injury), destructive catalysts and other significant segments. The cytotoxic venom is more viable than the neurotoxic sort venom, and it will work very quickly to the prey, for example, the mouse and frogs. In spite of the fact that the snakes are extremely quiet and revolting creatures (aside from a couple ones) yet death rate related with the snakebites is a genuine general medical issue in practically all the locale of the world, particularly in rustic regions where clinical offices are low or missing. In India, greater part of chomps and mortality are because of King cobra, naja, Daboia Russelli Russells snake, Bangarus caeruleus (basic krait) and Echis carinatus (saw-scaled snake). [1.1] Frequency of snake chomp Around 35,000 to 50,000 individuals allegedly kick the bucket of snake chomp in India consistently; be that as it may, the unreported cases might be more in provincial India. Assessed snake chomps and (passing) cases were accounted for as 25,000(30) in Europe; 6 20,000(100) in Middle East; 45,000(15) in USA and Canada; 3,00,000( 5,000) in Central and South America; 10,00,000(20,000) in Africa; 40,00,000 (1,00,000) in Asia; 10,000 (200) in Oceania all complete overall 5 million ( 1,25,000). Passing rate because of snake chomp is fairly uncommon in Australia, Europe and North America however visit in South Asia, South-East Asia and Sub-Sahar an Africa. In Zimbabwe on 274 cases contemplated, 4 out of 5 3, 6, 7 kids passed on who are under 8 years of age. [1.2] Identification of noxious and non-toxic snake ( proof recognizing harmful snakes.html) Noxious snakes by and large have the characters like Vertically curved formed feline like student. A little melancholy (named pit) between the eyes and nostrils. Triangle formed head for example Copperheads and clatter snakes, special case Elapids. Underside sizes of tail go totally right across in a solitary line from the butt-centric plate; the very tip of the tail may have two scale columns. Head and body both are seen during swimming time. For the most part of numerous hues. Interestingly, non-toxic snakes by and large have the characters like: Round student in the focal point of eye. U molded head. Two lines of scales from the vent to the last part. Just head is seen during swimming time. By and large of one shading. For the most part stripes are from head to tail. [1.3] Utility of Snake Venom Snake venoms are utilized to control heart ailments, hypertension, malignant growth (contortrostain delivered by Agkistrodon contortrix-is cytostatic in nature and found to bring down the development pace of bosom malignant growth in mice), tumor, polio, neurological clutters (catalysts from cobra venom were found to fix Parkinson s and Alzheimers sicknesses), over the top dying (a blood thickening protein in Taipan venom quit seeping during medical procedure or after significant injury), blood coagulating (ancrod got from Malyan pit snake, used to create angiotensin changing over compound inhibitors to treat stroke casualties), extreme hypersensitivities among others. Other fascinating territories of snake venom incorporate the treatment of infections (as venom contain phospholipidases which separate cell film), maturing and some are even utilized in business wrinkle cream! [1.4] Phospholipase-A2 Phospholipase A2 is one of the most seriously considered layer proteins which hydrolyze phospholipids at the sn-2 situation to shape unsaturated fat and lysophospholipid items. These are little proteins and the 3-D structures are known to high goals for a few animal categories. Phospholipase A2 proteins are of high pharmaceutical worry since they are liable for the arrival of arachidonic corrosive from films, and since the resulting transformation of this unsaturated fat to leukotrienes and prostaglandins is a piece of the incendiary reaction. The catalyst additionally shows exceptionally intriguing communications with the layer on which it ties. It is enacted somehow or another when it communicates with totaled types of the substrate, for example, in micelles or in bilayers. Electrostatic and hydrophobic cooperations are suspected to be associated with the official of the chemical to the film. Next to no is known about the chemical film complex structure and why the compound respond s significantly more productively once it ties its substrates in an accumulated structure. The phospholipid particle comprises of a glycerol-3-phosphate (blue shading) esterified at its sn-1 and sn-2 situations to non-polar unsaturated fats (R1 and R2, individually) and at its phosphoryl gathering to a polar head gathering, X. Phospholipase A1 and phospholipase A2 divide the acyl ester bonds at sn-1 and sn-2, separately. Phospholipase C divides the glycerophosphate bond while phospholipase D evacuates the head gathering, X. PLA, phospholipase A; PLC, phospholipase C; PLD, phospholipase D. Phospholipases2.png Fig-1.1: Phospholipase A2 Structure [1.5] Phospholipase-A2 (PLA2) Activity In the wake of entering inside the group of person venom containing PLA2 compound beginning influencing the phone films of practically all the phone organelles. Since cell organelles containing cell film are comprised of phospholipids, subsequently this phospholipids go about as a reactant for phospholipase a2 and begin responding with it. This phospholipase a2 will in general structure arachidonic corrosive which has a fiery sensation and this arachidonic corrosive further changed over into PGG2 by utilizing cyclooxygenases. This PGG2 further translated into PGH2 which structures 3 fundamental mixes PGD2, PGF2, and PGE2. Based on the ester bond that is separated inside a phospholipid particle, phospholipases are gathered into four families, specifically A, B, C and D. Phospholipase A chemicals separate the acyl ester security at either the sn-1 (phospholipase A1) or sn-2 (phospholipase A2) position (Figure 1). The Whoterm phospholipase B is given to phospholipases that hydrolyze acyl ester bonds at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions. Proteins assembled under phospholipase C separate the glycerophosphate security, while phospholipase D chemicals evacuate the polar head gathering. C:UsersAMITDesktopFINAL PROJECTicb200456f1.gif Fig-1.2:Activity Chain of Phospholipase A2 inside Cell Membrane Phospholipase A2 is being stifled by Lipocortins which is otherwise called Annexin. In human Annexin the regular cell protein is found inside the cell. Anyway outside the cell the annexin is additionally found inside the blood since they are moved out of the cell into the blood. This is a result of the absence of a sign peptide fundamental for protein to be shipped out of the cell. Since there are diverse dataset had been now arranged yet couldn't found the IC50 esteem, because of which the chipping away at this dataset couldn't be completed further. [1.6] Quantitative Structure Analysis Relationship (QSAR) QSAR assumes a significant job in lead structure advancement and it very well may be anticipated that QSAR technique will get basic for taking care of the colossal measure of information related with combinatorial science. 3D-QSAR has just been effectively applied to numerous informational indexes of chemical and receptor ligands. The organic action of atoms is normally estimated in measures to build up the degree of restraint of specific sign transduction or metabolic pathways. Synthetic concoctions can likewise be organically dynamic by being poisonous. Medication revelation frequently includes the utilization of QSAR to recognize substance structures that could have great inhibitory impacts on explicit targets and have low harmfulness (vague movement). Of uncommon intrigue is the forecast of Log P, which is a significant measure utilized in distinguishing drug-similarity as indicated by Lipinskis Rule of Five. While numerous Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship examination s [9] include the collaborations of a group of particles with a chemical or receptor restricting site, QSAR can likewise be utilized to consider the cooperations between the auxiliary spaces of proteins. As in the article Structural displaying broadens QSAR examination of immune response lysozyme communications to 3D-QSAR, protein-protein connections can be quantitatively investigated for auxiliary varieties came about because of site-coordinated mutagenesis. In this examination, a wild-type immune response explicit for lysozyme and 17 single and twofold freaks of the counter acting agent were explored. Quantitative models for the liking of the counter acting agent antigen collaboration were created. [1.6.1] 3D-QSAR The 3D-QSAR strategies have been created to improve the expectation exactnesses of 2D techniques. 3D strategies are computationally more unpredictable and requesting than 2D approaches. When all is said in done, there are two groups of 3D-QSAR met

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Using Themes to Get You Started

Using Themes to Get You StartedA first time student may be overwhelmed with the thought of writing a work of fiction in a paper such as a Foolscap Size Writing Paper. Usually, this type of paper is used for college-level essays and other important writing assignments. Nevertheless, the guidelines below can help the novice writer develop a good plot for their novel.The Foolscap writing paper is an inexpensive, lightweight manuscript format. The main reason it is often used in college courses is because of its short length. One page might contain as little as one sentence or only two sentences, making the document small but manageable. However, it must be remembered that the essay may be longer if required.In addition to being short, the Foolscap writing paper allows the writer to write directly onto the page. When not held up by a number of ideas, the writer can just get on with the writing without leaving a trail of notes behind. This has many advantages. It means the writer will hav e a clear idea of what they are trying to say without having to re-write and re-edit the text. The document will be even shorter than the length of the essay is when re-worked.The Foolscap writing paper is not difficult to follow when it comes to grammar and spelling. Most writers do not need any help from a writing instructor to be able to navigate the page correctly. When they are aware of the rules, it will save them from a lot of mistakes. They can get on with the writing without worrying about what another student may not think of their work.In addition to these benefits, the writing paper format also allows the writer to express themselves in a more enjoyable manner. Most students tend to keep their sentences short and straight to the point. They maybe tempted to ramble. The short and sharp form of the document may help students to write in a more concise manner. In addition, it will also allow them to capture the important points clearly.The Foolscap writing paper may be less intimidating for the writer if he or she has written previously in smaller format. In this case, they may be able to become familiar with the format. Therefore, it will be easier for them to adapt to the Foolscap writing paper when used for their first time.While it is true that the reader cannot follow the writer, he or she can still work on the theme of the story and character development. Sometimes, even if a piece of writing is rather short, a writer can still use that to build a solid foundation. A short piece of writing will be able to serve as a foundation for a larger story. In this way, a story with the title 'A Tale of Two Cities' may be written as one of the shorter pieces of fiction.It may be tempting to place a lot of emphasis on the characters in a piece of fiction, but a Foolscap writing paper is all about building a theme. Some writers will tend to focus too much on the characters. However, the process should be noted that the writing should be less about individual characters and more about the theme. At this point, it is worth mentioning that there is a possibility that a writer's focus may shift from the theme of the story to the characters.

Friday, August 21, 2020

The role of the internet in the formation of popular culture Essay

The job of the web in the development of mainstream society - Essay Example 11). The Internet is an amazing innovation, anyway not since it can be synchronized. Like something different, methodologies are communicated just as applied on the Internet. The accurate strength of the web is that, similar to an association, it uncovers uniqueness of procedure arrangement that requests to ones knowledge of freedom. This isn't solely for the causes that of saying like The Net comprehends limitation since hurt just as strategies roughly it, or, in all likelihood Nobody be familiar with we are a difficulty on the Internet. Complimentary exchanges just as detachment are respectable uniqueness of the untimely Internet; however they are neither boundless nor unequivocal endlessly extra. In reality, frameworks of perceiving oneself and plotting substance ought to be down to earth and wrapping. In its place, what detail the Internet a positive perspective is its rebel uniqueness of technique advancement, similar to that devolution, understanding, and genuineness that real world network game plan has battled by methods for extra achievement than others (Reagle, 2009). The Internet is en route to transform us. Web has reached at such stage that it has all out changed our lives (for example banking, correspondence just as shopping everything is utilizing Internet). Anyway a great deal of scientists have surveyed that Internet has set up some basic effects on our lives and the idea of our general public has totally changed. Presently we are living in an all the more inside associated society. Postmodernist speculation ought to be offensively distinguished from postmodern culture. Presently we can see parcel of data around us and the Internet is the main source that has connected all the data and gave us in easier structure. At the present, our locale has ended up being a data based network. Web has totally changed all the everyday issues and introduced another type of information that involve all

Saturday, June 6, 2020

Social Media Marketing How Twitter Can Be Used To Market Iphone X - 275 Words

Social Media Marketing: How Twitter Can Be Used To Market Iphone X (Research Paper Sample) Content: IPhone X Social Media Marketing Name Institution Date IPhone X Social Media Marketing Social media, over the years, has proved to be a potential marketing tool for various products. Business uses different social media to market their various products by providing appropriate descriptions to the online users. There are millions of people who use social media for multiple reasons like entertainment, sports, advertisement, and marketing. Of all the available social Media, I will choose twitter to market the iPhone X. Loyal clients like to be appreciated and treated as essential persons. Therefore, through twitter, I can promote my product by offering them an online preview, before the launching of the device. It will make them feel appreciated and buy the product. The reviews of customers help attract new ones because they act as an assurance of the quality of the product. Therefore, in promoting iPhone X, I would share the reviews of my clients with my followers on Twitter. Consequently, in the comments, I can take advantage of the new ideas proposed and provide an upgrade, thus meeting the needs of the clients, which will help increase sales. I can upload images and videos with a description of the features of the device and attract buyers from different parts of the world after viewing the details. By December 2015, there were more than three hundred and twenty million people around the world actively using Twitter for various purposes. It is mostly used to share news; therefore, launching and marketing iPhone X via Twitter will help inform millions of people about the device (Kennedy, 2015). On the s...

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Substance Abuse in the Workplace - 2219 Words

Substance Abuse in the Workplace: Substance abuse in the workplace has become a widespread problem as misuse of alcohol and other drugs is an epidemic in todays society. The problem of substance abuse remains a serious problem in many workplaces despite of the encouraging efforts by the local, state, and national government. As a result of the widespread and serious problem of substance abuse, especially alcohol, no workplace is immune from the practice and its effects. Notably, because of its severe impacts on both the abuser and the workplace, substance abuse should not be tolerated. Based on the findings of a research, approximately 75 percent of adult illicit drug users and heavy alcohol users are people employed in part time or full time jobs. Factors Contributing to Substance Abuse in the Workplace: While substance abuse in the workplace has serious effects on the employer, employees, and the working environment, there are various factors that contribute to this practice. These factors are associated with the abusing employee and the workplace environment. They include: Workplace Attributes: The working environment is likely to contribute to substance abuse if the culture of the workplace encourages or accepts the practice. The likelihood of a working environment to encourage and tolerate substance abuse is partly affected by the gender mix of its workforce (Drug Abuse in the Workplace, n.d.). For instance, male-dominated occupations tend to show heavyShow MoreRelatedSubstance Abuse On The Workplace1724 Words   |  7 Pages Substance abuse is one of the largest growing problems in the world. In addition to the growth and wide-spread popularity of alcohol and ‘recreational drug use, the international drug trade and alcohol distribution garners tens of billions of dollars a year in both legal and illegal revenue. This simply serves as an indicator for how common drug and alcohol has become on a global scale. Although there is a portion of the worldwide population which uses substances in a moderated and controlledRead MoreWorkplace Substance Abuse723 Words   |  3 PagesI do not think that there is a precedent for this issue. I see drug use in the workplace as being a distinct issue. It is of sufficient severity to merit its own status in negotiations with unions and to have its own policies. The outcomes are severe amputation, major lawsuits and they need to be dealt with, without leaning on some obscure past precedent as a crutch. Around 75% of all illicit drug users are employed (NIDA, 2008) and that makes this a serious issue for the company, since there isRead MoreA Substance Abuse Free Workplace983 Words   |  4 PagesA SUBSTANCE ABUSE FREE WORKPLACE 1. Describe the effect of illegal or prescription drug and alcohol use in the workplace. How does this affect productivity? Today in the United States, 73% of drug users are employed, costing American businesses billions of dollars annually in lost productivity and health care costs. Studies reveal that employees who abuse drugs have a tremendously harmful effect on the workplace—they are more likely to have extended absences from work, show up lateRead MoreIntroduction Of Drugs And Alcohol Essay1392 Words   |  6 Pages Table of Contents Introduction to Drugs and Alcohol 2 Overview 2 I. Workplace Factors 3 II. Workplace Performance Behavior 4 III. Workplace Role 5 RECOMMENDATION 6 Workplace Policies and Drug Testing 7 Policy and Regulations on Alcohol and drug abuse 7 Employee Education/Health Promotion 8 Works Cited 9 â€Æ' Employer’s Guide for a Drug-free Workplace Introduction to Drugs and Alcohol In order to understand drug and alcohol use, it is important to be clear about what we mean by the termsRead MoreSubstance Abuse Among Nurses Essay920 Words   |  4 PagesIntroduction Over the years, substance abuse in the United States has become a persistent issue affecting many individuals. In 2008, it was estimated that 17.8 million Americans over the age of 18 where substance dependent (Epstein, Burns, Conlon, 2010). Many of these individuals being affected are nurses. Ponech (2000) stated that approximately 10% of the nursing population has alcohol or drug abuse problems, and 6% has problems serious enough to interfere with their ability to practice (asRead MoreDrug Abuse On The Workplace Essay1704 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Abuse in the Workplace: The human resource topic I chose to write my research paper on is â€Å"Drug Abuse in the Workplace†. Drug abuse in the workplace is something very common that many of us will encounter at some point. Alcohol and drug abuse has a major effect on employee absence and lost productively that leaves a negative working environment. It is important a company addresses the right guidelines to keep a drug free workplace. Establishing a clear and fair substance abuseRead MoreWorking Under The Influence Case Study796 Words   |  4 Pagesfine when an employee is at home, these substances have no business in the workplace. Being under the influence at work can cause accidents, less production, tardiness or absenteeism, poor decision making, theft, and much more (â€Å"Drugs†, 2015). Employers can combat these problems by utilizing drug testing programs, establishing anti-drug abuse policies, and establishing an Employee Assistance Program. One way to address drug and alcohol problems in the workplace is to utilize drug testing before hiringRead MoreDrug Free is the Way to Be1053 Words   |  4 PagesThere are employees who use or abuse drugs, legal or not, that cause interference within the workplace. According to the Human Resource Manager Eileen Esquer, from Isagenix International, when the use of drugs start to disrupt an employee’s job, they generate expensive health costs and loss of productivity for businesses. A controversial issue in the business industry is with employment drug testing. Companies that organize drug testing will provide safe working conditions. Although, employers whoRead MoreTypes Of A Medical Review Officer ( Mro ) Testing Programs And Require A Drug Lab Certified1674 Words   |  7 Pageshave been ruled in favor of these guidelines. These guidelines include having a Medical Review Officer (MRO) evaluate all tests. The guidelines also identify the five specific substances for use in the Federal drug testing programs and require a drug lab certified by SAMHSA to perform the analytical test. The five substances under the SAMHSA’s guidelines are amphetamines, THC, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine. Amphetamines include meth, speed, crank, ecstasy, and stimulant based ADD/ADHD medicationsRead MoreThe American Psychiatric Association s Dsm V ( 2013 )1702 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction As the opioid epidemic takes hold throughout American’s rural counties, public health departments are struggling to mitigate the health threats presented by substance abuse and addiction. While detailed longitudinal data is unavailable, many areas that report increased rates of drug abuse also report increased hospital admissions and accidental deaths. While the relationship between these outcomes is not explicit, it is important to implement interventions that address health issues

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Everyday Use by Alice Walker A Look at Symbolism and...

Alice Walkers â€Å"Everyday Use†, is a story about a family of African Americans that are faced with moral issues involving what true inheritance is and who deserves it. Two sisters and two hand stitched quilts become the center of focus for this short story. Walker paints for us the most vivid representation through a third person perspective of family values and how people from the same environment and upbringing can become different types of people. Like most peoples families there is a dynamic of people involved, although all from the same environment and teachings, it is ultimately an accumulation of personal experiences that shape us and defines how we perceive our existence. â€Å"Everyday Use† is a story of conflict of right and wrong and†¦show more content†¦Because, the quilts had been made by the grandmother’s hands, the work that went into the quilts is the reason for importance of saving or preserving them as a family heirloom. â€Å"Maggi e†, knows the true value of the quilts, â€Å"Dee† seems to view them as any other common blanket. Alice Walker stated in the story that Maggie felt like the world never learned to tell Dee no. That is a direct reference to the mother never standing up to Dee and asserting her rightful place. The character types in this story would be one dynamic character, one flat, and one static character. The role of the dynamic character in the story is â€Å"Maggie†, the daughter that is described in detail as well as a very in-depth look at her personal psyche. How Walker builds her character in the story starting from meek and sheepish to end up being the justified victor in the end is classic dynamic character definition. The flat character role in the story would have to be â€Å"Dee† the sister that is described just enough to give the reader an idea of who she is and what she is about. The reader is almost biased toward â€Å"Dee† by the end of reading because of the few details they are given to base their ideas from. The central character in Alice Walkers Everyday Use, the beautiful Dee Johnson, breaks away from her Deep Southern American roots to become the heavily educated, urbanized, modernized young woman who despises her cultural setting†.(Ho el) The static character is the narrator orShow MoreRelatedEveryday Use - the Gift of Family945 Words   |  4 PagesThe Gift of Family Everyday Use is a short story that teaches a value lesson of heritage, inheritance, the past, and one’s family. For some the lesson maybe perceived as an illustration to develop the natural instinct of valuing our family and our past as objects of everyday use. However, the lesson that Alice Walker conveys to her readers is to understand that the value of heritage is within the eye of the beholder. WithinRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1721 Words   |  7 PagesIn her short story â€Å"Everyday Use,† Alice Walker summarizes the representation of the beauty, the conflicts and struggles within African-American culture. â€Å"Everyday Use† focuses mainly between members of the Johnson family, consisting of a mother and her two daughters. One of the daughters Maggie, who was injured in a house fire and has living a shy life clinging to her mother for security. Her older sister is Dee, who grew up with a grace and natural beauty. â€Å"Dee is lighter th an Maggie, with nicerRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1111 Words   |  5 Pagestheir culture. Alice Walker highlights and distinguishes the dissimilarities and clichà © of country African American women with the actualities that make up their lives. Characterized by short, compound sentences, with long adjectives and use of literary elements, her style is eloquent conversational and authentic. Alice Walker’s short story, Everyday Use is stylistic, ironic and narrates profound interpretation of unique views and approaches to African-American culture. Walker’s use of characterizationRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker962 Words   |  4 Pages In Alice Walker’s â€Å"Everyday Use,† this story describes what a continuing theme in her writings is: the depiction of constant harmony and inner struggles and conflicts that the minority culture goes through especially the African-American society. In Alice Walker Short Story â€Å"Everyday Useà ¢â‚¬  it centers on the relationships between a lower class family by the name of Johnson in a small poor rural community. This meeting takes place when the oldest daughter Dee comes home to visit her motherRead MoreReaction to Everyday Use1455 Words   |  6 PagesReaction to Everyday Use Marion Graham English/125 November 12, 2012 Reaction to Everyday Use Everyday Use is a short story written by Alice Walker about a family of three, Mama, the narrator, Maggie her youngest daughter, and Dee, her eldest daughter. Both daughters are completelyRead MoreEssay on Alice Walkers Everyday Use1144 Words   |  5 Pagesvarious ways. When many people think of heritage they think of past generation and where their family comes from. Other people place their heritage on the value of things, such as old quits that are made from something sentimental. In Everyday Use this is exactly how Maggie thinks of heritage. She wants the quits that were handmade out of her grandma’s dresses because to her that is a sign of her heritage. Alice Walker’s story is based on heritage. The narrator of the story has two daughters who couldRead MoreEveryday Use By Alice Walker1192 Words   |  5 PagesAlice Walker’s â€Å"Everyday Use† is a short story included in her collection In Love and Trouble published in 1973. The stor y’s setting takes place in the Deep South during the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s as many â€Å"blacks† were struggling to define their cultural identities (White). Traditions and culture in â€Å"Everyday Use† is portrayed contrastingly between Ms. Johnson and Maggie, who still follow rural black cultural of the south and Dee who has newly adopted a â€Å"native African† culture. An encounterRead MoreDee Versus Maggie: A Struggle For Self-Understanding Essay1448 Words   |  6 Pageseconomic opportunities many ‘colored people sought ways to escape ‘everyday life and the hardships they often faced. One of these ways came by beginning to express themselves more freely. In addition, as a result, the Harlem Renaissance formed. In Everyday Use, Alice Walker, one of the frontrunners of the Harlem Renaissance, tells the story of an oppressed and under-privileged African American family with differing values on what it means to live, or more imp ortantly, of one who struggles withRead MoreEveryday Use923 Words   |  4 PagesIn her short story â€Å"Everyday Use,† Alice Walker takes up what is a recurrent theme in her work: the representation of the harmony as well as the conflicts and struggles within African-American culture. â€Å"Everyday Use† focuses on an encounter between members of the rural Johnson family. This encounter––which takes place when Dee (the only member of the family to receive a formal education) and her male companion return to visit Dee’s mother and younger sister Maggie––is essentially an encounter betweenRead MoreThe Perception Heritage1016 Words   |  4 PagesIn â€Å"Everyday Use†, Alice Walker conveys the story of a mother and her two daughters’ conflicting ideas about their identities and ancestry. Mama is a simple woman that values culture and heritage for its usefulness but also its personal significance. However, her daughter Dee represents a materialistic way of life where culture and heritage are to be valued only for their artistic appeal. Through the use of symbolism and characterization, Walker displays how Mama’s perception of her two daughter

Kodak Strategy free essay sample

Introduction Eastman Kodak Company, also known as Kodak is a digital imaging and photography company which is best known for its photographic film products. One of the most dominant companies of its time, Kodak made photography available to the masses, but failed to adapt its business model to the development of digital photography. Recently by shedding many of the businesses that made them famous, Kodak has emerged from bankruptcy and also coming back to New York stock exchange. Now Kodak is concentrating on selling printing equipment and services to businesses. 1.1 A Brief History of Kodak: Pioneer of Film and Digital Photography Eastman Kodak Company commonly known as Kodak is an American multinational imaging and photographic equipment, materials and services company. It’s headquartered is in Rochester, New York, United States and incorporated in New Jersey. It was founded by George Eastman in 1888.You press the button, we do the rest promised George Eastman in 1888 with this advertisi ng slogan for his Kodak camera. Kodak began to sell their version of the instant camera in June 1976 to expand its market. The camera was called the Pronto which spit out a picture card which formed into a picture before the photographers eyes. The idea was successful and although Kodak’s ten picture pack of film was more expensive than Polaroid’s, several Japanese companies made cameras that used the new Kodak Film. (Time Magazine, 1976) Soon after, the disposable camera became popular. According to statistics, U. S. sales of disposable cameras grew 30% a year. Kodak sells more than anyone else, allowing Kodak to have sufficient cash flow to invest in a digital future. In the mid 1990’s Kodak’s innovators began to dabble with digital photography. In fact, they invented the first digital camera and realized that digital technology would transform their business. By the year 2000, Kodak had sunk more than $5 billion into digital investments during the 1990s, but received only $20 million in digital earnings in 1999 to show for it. Daniel Carp, the latest Chief Executive at Eastman Kodak stated that â€Å"digital can generate half of revenue and quarter of profits by 2005†. (Upbin, 2000, para. #3) So why wasn’t Kodak getting a return on their investment? One of the main issues that plagued the Eastman Kodak Company was not their innovation, but their timing in their marketing strategy and their assessment of the adaptability of its consumers. Kodak missed out on several holiday seasons where digital camera growth was high and failed to get a leg up on the competition back in 1996. The company was unable to â€Å"wean itself† from traditional film business. They have three major customer bases. The first is the Photofinishing Group which makes up almost 1/3 of sales. This group is made up of Kodak’s traditional film products and services that the average customer uses, plus products used by the film industry to reproduce and distribute motion pictures. The second group, not formed until 2003, is the Graphic Communications Group (GCG). It’s Kodak’s largest division which includes document imaging and digital printing services for businesses. The third group relates to healthcare services and is called the Health Group. This group specializes in healthcare imaging products such as x-ray devices and specialized films. To catch up to their competition, Kodak created a fourth group, the Consumer Digital Group, to change their main product line from traditional film to digital products. They turned their focus to digital cameras and printers, photo kiosks (like at CVS and Wal-Mart) and online photo sharing. Wikinvest, 2007) The problem was they did not react to the market until almost 2 years after their fierce competitors, such as Hewlett Packard, Canon, and Sony began to overtake the business. The irony is that although Kodak created many digital products that were ahead of their time, such as the Photo CD and high-end digital cameras, Kodak continued to focus their marketing strategy on the investor rat her than the customer. It is unfortunate because many of the digital imaging products that Kodak introduced, and that we still use today, did not get the commitment they deserved from their creators. Because of their own corporate reluctance to replace their main base of income (traditional film), many investors questioned whether it was too late for Kodak to join the digital age. (Nikondigital. org, 2007, para. #2) Timing was not the only problem. Kodak had digital competition from the evolution of the internet, the Sony Corporation, Hewlett Packard, and Canon, to name a few. Despite the invention of the digital camera, Kodak fell behind in efficiency profit margins and sheer sales. The company failed to market other media devices leaving Hewlett Packard and Lexmark to dominate the printer industry. Kodak is now trying to catch up in that area. Kodak needed to make several adjustments in their marketing strategy, develop their product line, promote their product, rethink their distribution efforts and develop a pricing strategy to steal market shares from industry leaders. With a new management philosophy and marketing strategy, Kodak realized the need to adjust its consumables. Most of Kodak’s traditional photography was based on their services, their paper and ink. With the addition of digital imagery, that had to change. Chemicals, to produce the photos were no longer needed for digital photography. How could Kodak compensate for the changing technology? Putting their innovators to the test, Kodak came up with the EasyShare family of cameras. It became one of Kodak’s biggest successes. Even today, it is still the â€Å"simplest way to get started in digital† photography. (Nikondigital. org, 2007, para. #7) Kodak developed this type of camera by studying how camera users take and print pictures and how it fits into their daily lives. Their research paid off. Kodak focused on low-priced, easy-to-use cameras that would appeal to women, who take the majority of snapshots. In 2004 the competition with Sony, the largest digital camera maker, paid off with a rise from a 5% market share in 2000 to a 19% share in 2004. (Hansell, 2004) In addition to the EasyShare system, category expansion has increased Kodak’s consumer base. One of the ways they accomplished this is by developing effective partnerships. To compete with some of the industry leaders, Kodak developed the â€Å"Kodak Gallery† an online photo sharing site which allows consumers to upload their photos and share them with friends and family. This competes with sites like Shutterfly and Photobucket. It recently partnered with Martha Stewart, Apple, Microsoft, and Amazon. com. (Wikinvest, 2007) Kodak has also planned investment in Lucky Film, Co. Ltd which will strengthen its position in Asia, and has increased its interest in medical markets. They have acquired PracticeWorks, a leader in digital dental imaging, and have improved their economic performance with Kodak Directview PACS System 5 for radiologists. (Eastman Kodak Company, 2004) To promote their products, Kodak has used the traditional advertising as well as some creative promotion techniques. Kodak wants to develop the customers of traditional cameras into future consumers of digital products. One of the ways they are doing this is donating 5,000 traditional cameras to those provinces in China that are not familiar with photography. As China’s rural areas become more economically independent, Kodak hopes to capture the market. This allows Kodak to continue its traditional (bread and butter) line of products to third world nations while focusing the digital sales to the United States, Canada and some European countries. (China Daily, 2004) One way to focus those sales in the U. S. is Kodak’s distribution to direct marketers who want to customize their flyers or retail changes that need variable posters. Digital technology makes it possible to economically print custom copies of anything and at almost any volume. They want to â€Å"elevate print and other visual communications for creativity and commerce†. (Sherburne, 2007, para. #3) Kodak is introducing the MarketMover Network, designed to focus on small business in a similar fashion that the Kodak Creative Network does, where the consumers create the photo books, calendars and flyers. Finally, Kodak’s pricing strategies had to be dramatic. One of the best things we hear about Kodak is the â€Å"quality of their service†. The problem is the competition is rapidly meeting Kodak’s quality standards. In 2007, Kodak developed KOS, the Kodak Operating System to streamline the production system and incorporate that into all aspects of Kodak’s operations. It changed their management philosophy. This had some effect on not only their marketing strategies, but their pricing strategies. In the past, companies were willing to sacrifice profits on the â€Å"durable† portion of their product – the printer, to make money on the â€Å"consumable† portion – printer cartridges. In February of that year, Kodak announced a new pricing strategy. It was a long term competitive dynamic disruption strategy. The strategy was aimed at reducing the cost of printing photos for the average consumer. Consumers will have to change their behavior to focus on printing costs instead of hardware costs. (Neff, 2007) In addition, the new printers will not have as many features as Hewlett-Packard printers currently have. This could corner an aging market that has not wanted to purchase â€Å"fancy† printers due to the challenge of technology. However, there is a growing share of private label recycled ink cartridges. Kodak will need to maintain their focus not only on the pricing of their ink cartridges, but they should reinforce the â€Å"quality† aspect of their product. During the past two decades, the Eastman Kodak has struggled with the advent of digital photography. What sets Kodak apart? Kodak is not a computer company, nor is Kodak a company which dabbles in several industries. They are focused on print products and photography.